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The salar de Uyuni in the Bolivian Andes is the largest salt flat on Earth, exhibiting less than 1 m of vertical relief over an area of km 2.
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We use seasonally-adjusted time series from continuously operating GPS stations to measure this uplift, which we invert to estimate mass loss. The associated pattern of mass loss, which ranges up to 50 cm of water equivalent, is consistent with observed decreases in precipitation and streamflow.
We estimate the total deficit to be about Gt, equivalent to a 10 cm layer of water over the entire region, or the annual mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Airborne lidar light detection and ranging topography, acquired before and after an earthquake, can provide an estimate of the coseismic surface displacement field by differencing the preevent and postevent lidar point clouds. However, estimated displacements can be contaminated by the presence of large systematic errors in either of the point clouds.
We present three-dimensional displacements obtained by differencing airborne lidar point clouds collected before and after the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, a M-w 7. The original surface displacement estimates contained large, periodic artifacts caused by systematic errors in the preevent lidar data.
Reprocessing the preevent data, detailed herein, removed a majority of these systematic errors that were largely due to misalignment between the scanning mirror and the outgoing laser beam. The methodology presented can be applied to other legacy airborne laser scanning data sets in order to improve change estimates from temporally spaced lidar acquisitions.
This range error the Gaussian-Centroid or "G-C" offset varies on a shot-to-shot basis and exhibits increasing scatter when laser transmit energies fall below 20 mJ. Using ICESat data over the Ross and Filchner—Ronne ice shelves we show that 1 the G-C offset introduces significant biases in ice-shelf mass balance estimates, and 2 the mass balance bias can vary between regions because of different temporal samplings of ICESat.
We can reproduce the effect of the G-C offset over these two ice shelves by fitting trends to sample-weighted mean G-C offsets for each campaign, suggesting that it may not be necessary to fully repeat earlier ICESat studies to determine the impact of the G-C offset on ice-sheet mass balance estimates. The Plate Boundary Observatory, the geodetic component of the EarthScope program, includes 74 borehole strainmeters installed in the western United States and on Vancouver Island, Canada.
In this study, we calibrate 45 of the instruments by comparing the observed M-2 and O-1 Earth tides with those predicted using Earth tide models. For each strainmeter, we invert for a coupling matrix that relates the gauge measurements to the regional strain field assuming only that the measured strains are linear combinations of the regional areal and shear strains. We compare these matrices to those found when constraints are imposed which require the coupling coefficients to lie within expected ranges for this strainmeter design.
Similar unconstrained and constrained coupling matrices suggest the instrument is functioning as expected as no other coupling matrix can be found that better reduces the misfit between observed and predicted tides when the inversion is unconstrained. Differences imply a coupling matrix with coefficients outside typical ranges gives a better fit between the observed and predicted tides. We find that 22 of the strainmeters examined have coupling matrices for which there is little difference between the constrained and unconstrained inversions.
If we allow a greater divergence in the shear coupling coefficients and consider the possibility that one gauge may not function as expected, the discrepancies between the unconstrained and constrained coupling matrices are resolved for a subset of the remaining strainmeters. Our results also indicate that most of the strainmeters are less sensitive to areal strain than expected from theory. Borsa , Tidal calibration of plate boundary observatory borehole strainmeters, J.
Solid Earth, , , doi: Improved near-field measurements of earthquake slip and deformation patterns have the potential for expanding our understanding of fault behavior and the relationship of active faulting to topography. Current techniques for obtaining these measurements-including field observation, Global Navigation Satellite Systems displacement estimation, and optical or radar remote sensing-have limitations that can be mitigated by the inclusion of results from differential airborne Light Detection and Ranging LiDAR analysis of the rupture zone.
The airborne LiDAR survey of the southern San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Banning faults the B4 survey mapped km of the most seismically active fault systems in southern California for the purpose of providing a baseline for determining slip from a future earthquake. We used the B4 survey to develop a processing algorithm that yields rapid estimates of near-fault ground deformation using simultaneous cross correlation of both topography and backscatter intensity from pre-earthquake and simulated postearthquake LiDAR datasets.
We show robust recovery of the direction and magnitude of an applied synthetic slip of 5 m in the horizontal and 0. We also successfully recovered more complex deformation from a modeled fault stepover in the same study area. The salar de Uyuni is a massive dry salt lake that lies at the lowest point of an internal drainage basin in the Bolivain Altiplano.
A kinematic GPS survey of the salar in September found a topographic range of only 80 cm over a 54 x 45 km area and subtle surface features that appeared to correlate with mapped gravity. In order to establish a physical connection between topography and the geopotential, we also develop and test a simple surface process model that redistributes salt via the dissolution, transport, and redeposition of salt by precipitated water.
Forcing within the model pushes the system to evolve toward constant water depth, with the salt surface approximating the shape of the local equipotential surface. Since the model removes almost all topographic relief with respect to the equipotential surface within a matter of decades, it appears that observed similar to 5 cm amplitude, similar to 5 km wavelength residual topography is actively maintained by a process independent of gravity-driven fluid flow.
We demonstrate that, under ideal circumstances, passive optical measurements can yield surface water depth estimates with an accuracy of a few centimeters. Our target area is the Salar de Uyuni, in Bolivia. It is a large, active salt flat or playa, which is maintained as an almost perfectly le vel and highly reflective surface by annual flooding, to a mean depth of cm.
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